September 2, 2012 – SPACE – Chance of flares: Sunspot AR1560 has more than quadrupled in size since August 30th, and now the fast growing active region is directly facing our planet: movie. NOAA forecasters estimate a 40% chance of M-class solar fares during the next 48 hours. A filament of magnetism curling around the sun’s southeastern limb erupted on August 31st, producing a coronal mass ejection (CME), a C8-class solar flare, and one of the most beautiful movies ever recorded by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory: The explosion hurled a CME away from the sun traveling faster than 500 km/s (1.1 million mph). The cloud, shown here, is not heading directly toward Earth, but it could deliver a glancing blow to our planet’s magnetic field on or about September 3rd. This date is preliminary and may be changed in response to more data from coronagraphs on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). – Space Weather
Super colossal eruption misses Earth. How long will our luck hold?
Published on Aug 7, 2012 by NASAexplorer
The Northern Hemisphere over the past 30 years has seen an increase in the amount of land area experiencing what NASA scientists define as “extremely hot” summer temperatures, according to a new analysis led by James Hansen at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. These regions of “extremely hot” temperatures are shown on the map as brown.
Hansen and colleagues looked at statistics and linked this increase in extreme heat waves to climate change.
These “extremely hot” temperatures covered less than 1 percent of the Northern Hemisphere land surface during the time period 1951 to 1980. Since 2006 these extreme temperatures have covered about 10 percent of this land area.
The visualization shows how temperatures by region differed from the 1951-1980 seasonal average for June, July and August. White areas are considered “normal” temperatures, while blues and purples represent colder than usual temperatures. The range of hotter than normal temperatures is defined by the scientists as “hot” (orange), “very hot” (red) and “extremely hot” (brown).
Notice how the areas covered by “extremely hot” temperatures increases from the 1980s to the present. The massive heat waves of Western Europe in 2003, Russia in 2010 and Texas, Oklahoma and Mexico in 2011 particularly stand out.
This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?3970
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Posted by truther on July 24, 2012
- New images show the Sun ‘s corona up close for the first time
- Could reveal new clues to explain how how sunspots form
- Experiment lasted just five minutes
Astronomers have revealed the unprecedented high resolutionpictures which reveal what really goes on in the atmosphere of our sun.
Activity in the sun’s corona on July 11, 2012, captured by Nasa’s High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C). The representative-color images were made from observations of ultraviolet light at a wavelength of 19.3 nanometers (25 times shorter than the wavelength of visible light).
The 16-megapixel images were captured by Nasa’s High Resolution Coronal Imager, or Hi-C, which was launched on a sounding rocket on July 11th.
Using a new mirror design, the Hi-C telescope is able to obtain images of structures as small as 135 miles across.
Nasa compares the advance to switching from ordinary cathode ray television to high-definition TV
Scientists say the new pictures could help us understand how the sun affects earth,
Before and after: These photos of the solar corona, or million-degree outer atmosphere, show the improvement in resolution offered by NASA’s High Resolution Coronal Imager, or Hi-C (bottom), versus the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (top).
‘Even though this mission was only a few minutes long, it marks a big breakthrough in coronal studies,’ said Smithsonian astronomer Leon Golub (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), one of the lead investigators on the mission.
Since Hi-C rode on a suborbital rocket, its flight lasted for just 10 minutes. Of that time, only about 330 seconds were spent taking data.
“The Hi-C flight might be the most productive five minutes I’ve ever spent,”
‘Things happening at a small, local scale can impact the entire Sun and result in an eruption,’ explained Golub.
Researchers with the hi-res Nasa Hi-C rocket that took stunning images of the sun’s corona
The corona surrounds the visible surface of the Sun.
It is filled with million-degree ionized gas, or plasma, so hot that the light it emits is mainly at X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths.
For decades, solar scientists have been trying to understand why the corona is so hot, and why it erupts in violent solar flares and related blasts known as “coronal mass ejections,” which can produce harmful effects when they hit Earth.
The Hi-C telescope was designed and built to see the extremely fine structures thought to be responsible for the Sun’s dynamic behavior.
Hi-C focused on an active region on the Sun near sunspot NOAA 1520.
The target, which was finalized on launch day, was selected specifically for its large size and active nature.
The resulting high-resolution snapshots, at a wavelength of 19.3 nanometers (25 times shorter than the wavelength of visible light), reveal tangled magnetic fields channeling the solar plasma into a range of complex structures.
The project was a collaboration between University of Central Lancashire, NASA and Smithsonian.
Dr Robert Walsh, University Director of Research at UCLan, said: ‘These first images taken by the Hi-C camera are truly awe-inspiring and have surpassed our expectations.
‘We are now able to analyse structural aspects of the Sun at a level of complexity we’ve never been able to achieve before.
‘The image quality is comparable to looking at a reflection in a steamed up mirror and then wiping it clean to reveal the true detail.
‘Findings from the Hi-C Mission will help us to understand the outer atmosphere of the Sun, learn more about the electrified gases that erupt from it along with the mechanisms that generate the energy it releases; all of which have knock on effects on Earth.’
‘We have an exceptional instrument and launched at the right time,” said Jonathan Cirtain, senior heliophysicist at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.
‘Because of the intense solar activity we’re seeing right now, we were able to clearly focus on a sizeable, active sunspot and achieve our imaging goals.’
When the sun killed
As Dr. Paul LaViolette sifted through the data he discovered incredible evidence that a horrific event occurred almost 13,000 years in the past, a period that encompasses the Rancholabrean termination.
Brilliant scientist Dr. Paul LaViolette discovered SPE horror
The sun erupted in a series of super-charged solar proton events that blasted away the Earth’s protective magnetosphere, ionosphere and utterly destroyed the geomagnetic field.
Over a period stretching from decades to centuries, the sun pounded a defenseless Earth again and again with deadly radiation across the spectrum. The solar kill shots centered on North and South America, Siberia and parts of Europe.
Accepted theories now in question
Near the end of the last major Ice Age, known as the Younger Dryas Period, many species of mammals abruptly disappeared. The sudden extinction puzzled scientists for years, and some paleontologists studying the mass extinction event called it the greatest extinction since the death of the dinosaur species.
Although virtually all large mammals were affected, many smaller species—including certain birds—were also decimated.
Over the years theorists have proposed the shocking extinction had its roots in massive meteoric and cometary impacts, or overhunting by paleolithic Man. Yet every theory falls short of a full explanation and each has its flaws.
SPEs and life on Earth
As LaViolette dug deeper more disturbing data emerged: evidence of intense solar activity matching the 200-year de Vries solar cycle period. As Space Daily observes, “This was the smoking gun that indicated that these spurts very likely had a solar cause.” And those “spurts” killed off many species on Earth.
When the sun kills proton streams erupt from photosphere
By analyzing the history of radiocarbon increases, LaViolette determined at least two major and two minor SPEs occurred. Each of these killed life—or mutated it—predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in North America.
“Extrapolating upward from that event,” Space Daily notes, “LaViolette estimates that the 12,837 years BP extinction level SPE would have delivered over a two day period a radiation dose of from 3 to more than 6 Sieverts, lethal dose (LD-100) for most mammals being in the range of 3 to 8 Sieverts.
Sun blasting geomagnetic field [Image: NASA]
“The upper range of his estimate is a very conservative projection based on the assumption that the SPE would have been strong enough to overpower the Earth’s protective magnetic field sheath allowing the full intensity of the solar cosmic ray barrage to directly contact the Earth’s atmosphere and induce an intense shower of cosmic ray secondaries.”
Such an intense radioactive blast could very well be the cause behind the total extinction of many types of birds and smaller mammals and even account for the virtual disappearance of all Pleistocene megafauna.
Interstellar cloud invaded the solar system
“He attributes this elevated solar activity to the presence in the solar system of high concentrations of interstellar dust which at that time were being driven inward by a wind of galactic cosmic rays.”
Map of recent global solar proton events
Determined, LaViolette continued digging and found physical evidence that the polar regions completely lost their protective ozone layers and were drenched with cosmic rays and intense ultraviolet radiation for at least several years. Much of that spread downwards to the lower latitudes.
The days the sun ‘burned the Earth
As the proton events built in intensity the climate warmed significantly, super wildfires broke out across North America, and whole regions were destroyed in massive conflagrations.
Meanwhile, hard radiation mercilessley blanketed the upper latitudes on and off over several thousand years resulting in “multiple extinction level episodes.”
If the Northern Hemisphere became such a killing field, how did ancient Man survive it?
The answer lies in LaViolette’s incredible book, Earth Under Fire.
The scientist’s book documents many ancient legends and myths related to the era of the last Ice Age.
LaViolette’s book shares the legends of the SPEs
The misty legends, almost lost in time, describe how the sun once burned the Earth or touched the Earth, and the ancient stories relate how many animals died or turned into strange monsters, and how gigantic fires erupted in the forest lands.
Other legends tell of many humans seeking shelter inside caves or underground when the sun “burst forth in anger.”
Now the danger of an SPE may be rising again—and very soon.
The space cloud, the core, and the shrinking sun
Certain markers may signal the approach of a devastating SPE:
1. An interstellar cloud entering the solar system;
2. Disruptions and anomalies in the geomagnetic field;
3. Indications that the Earth’s core is mutating, also affecting the geomagnetic field;
4. Permutations of the polar ozone layers;
5. Solar activity reaching a peak at the end of its 200-year cycle;
6. A measurable uptick of SPE events and indications of intensifying proton streams;
7. The sun about to enter a period when the solar sphere shrinks.
All seven of the indicators are now being met.
A strange energy cloud entered the solar system several years ago mystifying NASA and astrophysicists. [Claim: NASA Hiding Approaching Doomsday Space Event]
Disruptions in the geomagnetic field have been ongoing for more than a decade and a half.
Some geologists believe Earth’s core is mutating. [Earth's core spinning out of control]
Solar activity is approaching its peak, so much so that NASA and the ESA are warning about a possible devastating loss of technology.
Measurements of the proton stream have revealed upticks.
The sun is expected to shrink more when it enters the Maunder Miniumum after 2013.
If a killer SPE occurs the only protection from it is the one that early Man took: go underground and stay there.
Is this the reason the world’s major countries have been building massive underground cities beneath the earth and inside mountains for almost 50 years?
July 12, 2012 –SPACE – Big sunspot AR1520 unleashed an X1.4-class solar flare on July 12th at 1653 UT. Because the sunspot was directly facing Earth at the time of the blast, this is a geoeffective event. Stay tuned for updates about possible CMEs and radio blackouts. The UV and X-ray pulse from the flare will have partially ionized Earth’s upper atmosphere on the dayside of our planet, disturbing the normal propagation of radio signals. –Space Weather
video courtesy of Solarham
By EDDIE WRENN
The sun is a tempestuous mistress – and her outbursts are becoming more and more violent as the weeks go on.
This came on the back of 12 ‘M’ flares in just six days, with a M6.1 flare knocking out radio signals across the planet on Thursday – hinting at the destruction the sun could reign on our technology if Earth takes a full blast across its blow.
The sunspot group behind the flares – named as AR1515 – stretches across 118,681 miles (191,000km) of the sun’s surface.
This makes it’s width more than 15 Earths set end to end, said NASA solar astrophysicist C. Alex Young.
Scroll down for video
The smallest ones are A-class, which are similar to normal background levels, followed by B, C, M and X.
Similar to the Richter scale for earthquakes, each letter represents a 10-fold increase in energy output, meaning an X is ten times an M and 100 times a C.
The sun is now heading into the peak of its 11-year solar flare cycle, with 2013 expected to the tumultuous year.
With the increased spread in communications in the last 11 years, a sever solar storm could cause huge issues for the planet.
Radio blackouts occur when the X-rays or extreme UV light from a flare disturb the layer of Earth’s atmosphere known as the ionosphere, through which radio waves travel.
The constant changes in the ionosphere change the paths of the radio waves as they move, thus degrading the information they carry.
This affects both high and low frequency radio waves alike.
The same region has also produced numerous coronal mass ejections or CMEs. They have been observed and modeled by NASA’s Space Weather Center (SWC) and are thought to be moving relatively slowly, traveling between 300 and 600 miles per second.
Since the active region itself is so southerly in the sun, CMEs from this region are generally unlikely
to impact Earth.
Nasa’s Solar Dynamics Observatory captured an M5.6-class solar flare erupting from the sun’s surface starting on July 2, from a huge sunspot called AR1515 in the sun’s southern hemisphere.
The blast of particles – a ‘coronal mass ejection’ – was not directed towards Earth, but the charged particles caused brief radio interference across Europe.
From a different spot, but on that same day, the sun unleashed a coronal mass ejection (CME) that began at 4:36 AM on Tuesday.
Models from the NASA’s Space Weather Center at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md, described the CME at traveling at nearly 700 miles per second, but do not show it heading toward Earth.
Sunspots are darker than the surrounding area because they are slightly cooler, which makes them less luminous.
They are caused by the sun’s magnetic field becoming twisted – and it’s this twisting dynamic that can produce coronal mass ejections.
These contain billions of tons of gases bursting with X-rays and ultraviolet radiation.
They are mind-bogglingly hot – around 100,000,000C and the result of ionised solar particles becoming imprisoned by Earth’s magnetic field, exciting the gases in the atmosphere and emitting bursts of energy in the form of light.
However, these particles can also cause magnetic storms, which in extreme cases have been known to disrupt satellites and electricity grids.
In 1989, a CME was held responsible for leaving six million people in Quebec, Canada, without power.
Solar activity runs in 11-year cycles, with the current one peaking in 2013, so more violent space weather is on the horizon.
Dr Matthew Penn, of the National Solar Observatory in Arizona, said recently: ‘Because the sun is becoming more active, it will have an impact on millions of people. Sunspots can cause the biggest and most damaging space storms that occur.
‘During the next two years, we are expecting the number of sunspots visible on the sun to reach a maximum. We know that sunspots are the source of a lot of space weather and solar storms, so we expect a larger number of solar storms here at the Earth.’
VIDEO: See the solar flare of the summer
MOST READ NEWS
The cloud seen here is equally strange. It was filmed by the ISS crew on March, 11, 2012.
Whatever it is, it certainly does not look like any ordinary cloud we are used to see in the skies. So, what is it?
The image below shows what ordinary contrails can look like.
Here below we see a strange cloud that was filmed by the ISS crew.
Credit: myunhauzen74, filmed by ISS
June 23, 2012 – GULF OF MEXICO - It’s quite likely that the fourth tropical cyclone of the North Atlantic Hurricane Season is brewing in the southern Gulf of Mexico, more specifically, in the Yucatan Channel. The Yucatan Channel lies between Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula and western Cuba. Tropical depressions seem have have a habit of forming on weekends, and this low appears to be following that habit. On Friday, June 22 at 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT), System 96L was located near 22.5 North and 89.5 West, near the north coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The GOES-13 satellite continually monitors the eastern U.S. and provides updated visible and infrared imagery. An image from June 22 at 1601 UTC (12:01 p.m. EDT) shows a large low pressure area near the Yucatan’s northern coast with disorganized showers and thunderstorms. In the image, some of the thunderstorms near the center of the low appear to be higher than the surrounding clouds, which indicates they are higher and stronger. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that atmospheric pressure on the surface continues to fall, indicating that the low pressure area is intensifying. Forecasters at NHC give System 96L a 70 percent chance of becoming the fourth tropical depression of the Atlantic Hurricane season, sometime over the weekend. Meanwhile, System 96L is expected to move slowly northward into the Gulf of Mexico this weekend (June 23-24). The NHC notes “Interests along the entire United States Gulf Coast should monitor the progress of this disturbance through the weekend. Heavy rains and localized flooding are possible across the Yucatan peninsula, western Cuba, and southern Florida through Saturday.” -Physics
A solar flare is an explosive blast of light and charged particles. The powerful March 7 flare, which earned a classification of X5.4 based on the peak intensity of its X-rays, is the strongest eruption so far observed by Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT). The flare produced such an outpouring of gamma rays — a form of light with even greater energy than X-rays — that the sun briefly became the brightest object in the gamma-ray sky.
“For most of Fermi’s four years in orbit, its LAT saw the sun as a faint, steady gamma-ray source thanks to the impacts of high-speed particles called cosmic rays,” said Nicola Omodei, an astrophysicist at Stanford University in California. “Now we’re beginning to see what the sun itself can do.”
Omodei described Fermi’s solar studies to journalists today at the 220th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Anchorage, Alaska.
At the flare’s peak, the LAT detected gamma rays with two billion times the energy of visible light, or about four billion electron volts (GeV), easily setting a record for the highest-energy light ever detected during or immediately after a solar flare. The flux of high-energy gamma rays, defined as those with energies beyond 100 million electron volts (MeV), was 1,000 times greater than the sun’s steady output.
The March flare also is notable for the persistence of its gamma-ray emission. Fermi’s LAT detected high-energy gamma rays for about 20 hours, two and a half times longer than any event on record.
Additionally, the event marks the first time a greater-than-100-MeV gamma-ray source has been localized to the sun’s disk, thanks to the LAT’s keen angular resolution.
Flares and other eruptive solar events produce gamma rays by accelerating charged particles, which then collide with matter in the sun’s atmosphere and visible surface. For instance, interactions among protons result in short-lived subatomic particles called pions, which produce high-energy gamma rays when they decay. Nuclei excited by collisions with lower-energy ions give off characteristic gamma rays as they settle down. Accelerated electrons emit gamma rays as they collide with protons and atomic nuclei.
Fermi’s LAT scans the entire sky every 3 hours, looking for gamma rays with energies ranging from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. Its high sensitivity and wide field of view make the LAT an excellent tool for solar monitoring.
Another Fermi instrument, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), observes the entire sky not blocked by the Earth at any given moment. Designed to detect light at energies from 8,000 eV to 40 MeV, the GBM’s complementary capabilities give scientists access to a lower, but overlapping energy range where solar phenomena produce interesting features.
Both instruments observed a strong, but less powerful solar flare on June 12, 2010.
“Seeing the rise and fall of this brief flare in both instruments allowed us to determine that some of these particles were accelerated to two-thirds of the speed of light in as little as 3 seconds,” said Michael Briggs, a member of GBM team at the University of Alabama in Huntsville.
Solar eruptions are on the rise as the sun progresses toward the peak of its roughly 11-year-long activity cycle, now expected in mid-2013.
“Merged with available theoretical models, Fermi observations will give us the ability to reconstruct the energies and types of particles that interact with the sun during flares, an understanding that will open up whole new avenues in solar research,” said Gerald Share, an astrophysicist at the University of Maryland in College Park.
NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is an astrophysics and particle physics partnership. Fermi is managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. It was developed in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy, with contributions from academic institutions and partners in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden and the United States.
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